Discussie: Onze Vader ...
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Oud 15 augustus 2019, 09:01   #8
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In de Joodse Encyclopedie wordt het gebruik van het woord vader in de joodse bijbel en traditie vrij uitvoerig uiteengezet. Het woord werd soms gebruikt voor personen met grote autoriteit. De macht van een vader ging wel heel erg ver, zo blijkt uit het laatste stukje in dit citaat.

By: Solomon Schechter, Caspar Levias

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The word [father] denotes primarily the begetter or genitor of an individual. In a looser sense it is used to designate the grandfather or remoter progenitor in general; also the head of the household, family, or clan; or the originator or patron of a class, profession, or art; or the benefactor or protector. Hence arises the employment of this term as a title of respect and honor. When used of God it generally refers to the covenant relation between Him and Israel (compare Murray's "Eng. Dict." s.v.). Moses is called "the father of wisdom" and "the father of the Prophets" (Lev. R. i.). Rabbi Hoshaya is called "the father of the Mishnah" (Yer. Yeb. 4d). The one next in authority to the NASI in the court of justice was called "father of the bet din" (?ag. xvi. 6; compare Rapoport, "'Erek Millin," p. 2); and in the Middle Ages the head of the academy was called "father of the yeshibah" (see Schechter, "Saadyana," p. 82; Büchler, "Das Synedrion in Jerusalem," p. 173, and Index, s.v. "Ab-Bet-Din"). In the plural the word is used in the sense of famous men, celebrities in Israel's history, especially of the three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Ecclus. [Sirach] xliv., heading). In Mishnah 'Eduyot, Shammai and Hillel are called "the fathers of the world," a title which was also accorded to Akiba and Ishmael (Yer. R. H. 56d).

The father was supreme over his children. His power of life and death is attested by the proposed sacrifice of Isaac (Gen. xxii.), the case of Jephthah's daughter (Judges xi.), and the practise of sacrificing children to Molech (Lev. xviii. 21, xx. 2-5; II Kings xxiii. 10; Jer. xxxii. 35). A later limitation of that right is the requirement in the case of a stubborn and rebellious son, a glutton, or a drunkard, to bring the matter before the elders. It was only by their decision that the son was stoned to death by his fellow citizens (Deut. xxi. 18-21). ...........
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