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Geschiedenis Van de Romeinen tot 9/11...

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Oud 9 oktober 2018, 19:55   #1
Frankenstein
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https://elpais.com/elpais/2018/10/03...10_930565.html

HISTORY
The invasion that wiped out every man from Spain 4,500 years ago
New research indicates all local males on the Iberian peninsula were killed by hostile invaders with superior technology

More than 5,000 years ago a nomadic group of shepherds rode out of the steppes of eastern Europe to conquer the rest of the continent. The group, today known as the Yamna or Pit Grave culture, brought with them an innovative new technology, wheeled carts, which enabled them to quickly occupy new lands. More than 4,500 years ago, the descendants of these people reached the Iberian peninsula and wiped out the local men, according to new research by a team of international scientists.

“The collision of these two populations was not friendly; instead, the men who arrived almost completely pushed out the local men,” explains David Reich, a genetics professor at Harvard University who presented the results of the research at an event organized by New Scientist magazine on September 22, ahead of the study’s publication.

40% of the genetic information and 100% of the Y chromosomes come from the migrants



The arrival of the hostile invaders in what is today Spain and Portugal had “a rapid and generalized genetic impact,” said Spanish scientist Íñigo Olalde at a conference two weeks ago in Jena, Germany. According to Olalde, during the Bronze Age, the subsequent populations had “40% of their genetic information and 100% of their Y chromosomes from the migrants.”

Given that children inherit the Y chromosome from their fathers, “this means that the men who arrived had preferential access to local women, again and again,” said Reich at the September event.

The study, which analyzed the DNA of the remains of 153 individuals dug up in the Iberian peninsula, is set to be published in one of the most important scientific journals in the world. Neither Reich or Olade, who are both from Harvard University, wanted to offer any more details. The geneticist Carles Lalueza-Fox, from the Barcelona Institute of Evolutionary Biology, also worked on the research.

Three years ago, another research team led by Reich suggested that Indo-European languages – the linguistic family to which most European languages belong – developed via the Yamna culture and their descendants.

The prehistorian Roberto Risch, from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, told EL PAÍS at the time that findings from the La Bastida dig, in the Spanish southeastern region of Murcia, had uncovered “a great surprise.”

The archaeology reveals a hierarchical society that broke with the old egalitarianism of the early Neolithic period

HISTORIAN ROBERTO RISCH

“We realized that the Iberian peninsula was not only colonized by the first Neolithic migration wave 8,000 or 9,000 years ago but also by a later one 4,500 years ago, which brought with it a very different culture,” he said.

War axes and carts with four wheels can be found in the layers of earth that date back 4,500 years. “From then on, almost all men’s tombs were filled with weaponry, adornments, displays of wealth. The archaeology reveals marked signs of a hierarchical society that broke with the old egalitarianism of the early Neolithic period,” said Risch.

The findings from Reich’s research team are also backed up by a study published last year by geneticists Dan Bradley from Trinity College in Dublin and Rui Martiniano from Cambridge University. This research team announced they had discovered a “discontinuity” in the Y chromosome during the Bronze Age in the Iberian Peninsula, after studying the DNA of the remains of 14 people found in archaeological sites in Portugal.

“In terms of why the Y chromosome was replaced, we could speculate that the populations from the steppes had superior technology, better weapons and also domesticated horses that could have given them an advantage in war,” says Martiniano.



http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/...cal-population

Thousands of horsemen may have swept into Bronze Age Europe, transforming the local population

Call it an ancient thousand man march. Early Bronze Age men from the vast grasslands of the Eurasian steppe swept into Europe on horseback about 5000 years ago—and may have left most women behind. This mostly male migration may have persisted for several generations, sending men into the arms of European women who interbred with them, and leaving a lasting impact on the genomes of living Europeans.

“It looks like males migrating in war, with horses and wagons,” says lead author and population geneticist Mattias Jakobsson of Uppsala University in Sweden.

Europeans are the descendants of at least three major migrations of prehistoric people. First, a group of hunter-gatherers arrived in Europe about 37,000 years ago. Then, farmers began migrating from Anatolia (a region including present-day Turkey) into Europe 9000 years ago, but they initially didn’t intermingle much with the local hunter-gatherers because they brought their own families with them. Finally, 5000 to 4800 years ago, nomadic herders known as the Yamnaya swept into Europe. They were an early Bronze Age culture that came from the grasslands, or steppes, of modern-day Russia and Ukraine, bringing with them metallurgy and animal herding skills and, possibly, Proto-Indo-European, the mysterious ancestral tongue from which all of today’s 400 Indo-European languages spring. They immediately interbred with local Europeans, who were descendants of both the farmers and hunter-gatherers. Within a few hundred years, the Yamnaya contributed to at least half of central Europeans’ genetic ancestry.

Laatst gewijzigd door Frankenstein : 9 oktober 2018 om 20:13.
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Oud 10 oktober 2018, 00:38   #2
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Wat ik mij afvraag hoe het er destijds aan toe is gegaan. In de trend van mijn zonen ga heen en vermoord elke man, jongen en zwangere vrouw die u tegenkomt die van onze stam behoort. En al uw kinderen moeten de taal van de vader spreken; andere talen worden verboden met straffe op dood. Heeft iets van nazisme ; ik kan kan mij haast niet voorstellen dat achter geweld geen geloof in voorvaderen schuil ging.
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Oud 14 oktober 2018, 11:03   #3
djimi
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Ik vraag me toch af of ook de Basken last hadden van die mogelijks 'proto-Indo-Europees' sprekende mannetjesputters.

Grote aantallen van hen blijken immers nog steeds een 'geïsoleerde' taal te spreken die niks met 'Indo-Europees' te maken heeft.

En zouden die nomaden ook de Britse eilanden hebben bereikt, de Balearen, Corsica, Sardinië, Sicilië, of Scandinavië?



Me dunkt dat er nog héél wat méér archeologisch & genetisch onderzoek nodig is.
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Oud 14 oktober 2018, 12:45   #4
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Citaat:
Oorspronkelijk geplaatst door djimi Bekijk bericht
Ik vraag me toch af of ook de Basken last hadden van die mogelijks 'proto-Indo-Europees' sprekende mannetjesputters.

Grote aantallen van hen blijken immers nog steeds een 'geïsoleerde' taal te spreken die niks met 'Indo-Europees' te maken heeft.

En zouden die nomaden ook de Britse eilanden hebben bereikt, de Balearen, Corsica, Sardinië, Sicilië, of Scandinavië?



Me dunkt dat er nog héél wat méér archeologisch & genetisch onderzoek nodig is.
Inderdaad. En dan vooral de 'grootsheid' en snelheid waar dit gepaard, is gegaan is in historisch context uniek.

Ikzelf heb een vermoeden dat het de Kelten met Indo Europese taal waren;doch lees hier niets over terug.

Laatst gewijzigd door Frankenstein : 14 oktober 2018 om 12:46.
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Oud 14 oktober 2018, 15:59   #5
Bhairav
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Baskisch is overleefd als moedertaal. Maar hun mannelijk DNA komt ook uit het oosten, volgens die redenering. Ik zou er ook niet van verschieten als dat eigenlijk niet zo lang geleden is als 5000 jaar.
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