Geregistreerd: 19 mei 2020
Frieze plaatsnamen in Engeland
Frieze plaatsnamen in Engeland
De Friese taal staat ook veel dichter bij het Engels dan bv Nederlands, dat zegt al genoeg IMHO...West Fries, of simpelweg Fries is een West Germaanse taal dat vnl wordt gesproken in de provincie Friesland...
Mr. H. M. Chadwick 1 departs from current views about
the early settlers of Great Britain and challenges Bede's
long-accepted classification of them as Angles, Saxons, and
Jutes. He believes them to have been a homogeneous
people, their dialectic differences having come about after
the immigration and through political and geographical
influences. He opposes the prevailing notion that the
Anglo-Saxon organization at the time of the migration was
" tribal," and thinks that the invasion was accomplished
by large organized bands, not by small groups of adven-
turers acting independently. The migration of the Angli
Mr. Chadwick regards as exceptional. Although there was
no external pressure, it was on a large scale and extended
over a considerable space of time. And, he says, according
to the constitution of military forces of the time, the war-
riors required to make up the forces of invasion were not
all drawn from within the territories of the Angli, but
came, many of them, from the surrounding regions. 2
I believe that the following presentation of Frisian
place-names in England will strongly support Mr. Chad-
wick's theory of the invasion and settlement of Great
Britain, as well as give some credibility to the statement of
the old Latin writer Procopius, 3 who named the Frisians
among the three nations, Angiloi, Phrissones, and
Bri tones, that inhabited Britain in his time (the sixth
1 Origin of the English Nation, 1907, ch. 4, p. 12.
'Ibid., p. 154; pp. 180-181.
* Procopius, Q-othio War, iv, 20. Translated by Chadwick in
Origin of the English Nation, p. 55; also quoted by Theodor Siebs,
Zur Geschichte der englisch-friesischen Sprache, I, 1889.
FRISIAN PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND 645
century, nearly two hundred years before the time of
Bede). Moreover, if we agree with Mr. Chadwick in
holding that the dialectic differences of Anglian and West-
Saxon became marked only after the settlement, we must
look farther for the causes and influences that set up and
accelerated the divergences in language and nationality.
Mr. Chadwick, however, does not assert that the Frisians
were among the invaders of Britain. In fact, he dismisses
the passage from Procopius with the remark, " Apart from
this passage we have no evidence that they took part in
the invasion of Britain, though their language is closely
related to English." And his use of the term Anglo-
Frisian has reference only to what he regards as a close
affinity of the two nations on the Continent before the
migration of the Angli. But if, as Mr. Chadwick thinks,
the invaders came over to Britain in large military com-
panies, not as tribes, then, as he implies, there is great
probability that crowds of people indiscriminately made
up the military numbers that came over with the larger
and more important body of the Angli ; and, because there
was no tribal discrimination or limitation, these people
would become permanent settlers, being among those more
interested in land, cattle, and homes than the military
element and the leaders. Thus, the Frisians, who, as Mr.
Chadwick shows, were the nearest neighbors of the Angli
on the Continent and most closely allied in language,
would be found, in greater or less number, among the
invader settlers of Britain. How large the number, the
Frisian place-names may help to show. I present them,
by counties, only in a preliminary way, since the study of
place-names in England, although a popular one, has
extended only to a few counties and is not yet on a thor-
646 JESSIE M. LYONS
1. Frisby (Doncaster) : 1275 Friseby, 1504 Frysby. 4
2. Frising hall (Bradford) : Y. I. 1287 Fresinghale,
D. K 1287 Fresinghal, Dl K 1424 Frisinghall, Y. F.
1567 Frysynghall. Mr. Goodhall derives the name from
Fresinga, sons or family of the Frisian, and healh, corner
or meadow, and refers to Middendorf's explanation of
Frisingmwde from Frisa, Fresa, the Frisian.
3. Frisingmasde (Birch 957). See above.
4. Friez land: Freze Land in the Parish Begister of
5. Fryston(e) Ferry, Fryston(e) Monk, Fryston
Water: Birch, in, 345 (963) Fryssetune, D. Book of
Y. 1086 Frystone, Fristone, P. 0. 1155 Fristona, P. M.
1247 Fristone, etc. ; Mr. Moorman derives the name from
Frythetune or Fryssetune, which, he says, 5 appear as
variants of the modern Frystone in two copies of the same
O. E. charter. See Birch, in, 695, 345. These names,
he says, are from a still earlier Frithestun — the enclosure
of Frith. If Friston of Yorkshire is to be carried back to
Frith, Fryth, why not to Firth, a ford or ferry, since these
places really were all on the bank of the same water?
Other variants, particularly in other counties, Fres-,
Fries-, indicate that the name, in many cases at least, goes
back to Friesa or Fresa, O. E. for Frisian.
6. Fressain Pas de Calais: formerly, according to
Mannier, written Fresinghem. 5 This form would appear
to be particularly Frisian, since -hem, though claimed by
4 A. Goodhall, Place Names of South West Yorkshire.
'A. Goodhall, Place Names of South West Yorkshire ; F. W. Moor-
man, Place Names of the West Biding of Yorkshire (1910) ; Lewis's
Topographical Dictionary; PMKps's Atlas; Index to the Parishes,
Townships, Hamlets, Etc., of England and Wales, 1907.
FRISIAN PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND 647
Lindkvist 6 as Scandinavian, along with most of the other
Old English place terminals, is Continental Frisian and
accords with the Frisian e for a forms in Anglo-Frisian.
See W. Crecelius's life of the Frisian, Lradgers, taken
from documents of Chartularium Werthinense, of the early
ninth century. This document contains many names in
-hem and -thorp, showing that these forms are not exclu-
sively Scandinavian. 7
1. Fressingfield : Fresingfeld. H. R. (Rotuli Hun-
dredorum vol. i). W. W. Skeat says that Oopinger also
reports the forms Fresyngefeld, Fresyngfeld, etc. Skeat
here explains the forms as from Fresena, the gen. plu. of
Fresa, the Frisian. The forms in -inga, -ing are very
common in Barber's list 8 of Frisian family names and
indicate the famiily of or the sons of. The ending is found
both in Old English and in Scandinavian, but appears to
be particularly Frisian.
2. Fressingfield Lodge, also mentioned in Philips's
Atlas of the Counties of England.
3. Friston, Framlingham, Freston, Ipswich: Skeat
gives Frestune, H. R. ; Fresetuna, D. B., p. 230 ; Fresan-
tune, Birch, C. S. in, 602.
4. Friswell, Friswell Hall, Friswell High Warren
6 Harald Lindkviat, Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian
Origin, Part I, Uppsala, 1911.
' W. Crccelius, Collectae ad Augendam Nominum Propriorum
Saxonicorum et Frisiorum Scientiam Spectarites, 1869 ; Theodor
Siebs, Tiiir Qeschichte der englisch-friesischen Sprache, pp. 104, 257;
W. W. Skeat, Place Names of Suffolk, 1913, p. 126.
s W. W. Skeat, Place Names of Suffolk; Lewis's Top. Diet.; Index
to Parishes, etc.; Philips's Atlas of the Counties of England; H.
Barber, British Family Names, 1903 (2d ed.).
"Philips's Atlas of the Counties of England.
648 JESSIE M. LYONS
1. Friston, Newark 10 : both Friston and Freston given
2. Frieston, Boston. 9
3. Frieston Ten Allotment, Boston, Frieston Ings.,
Boston and Frieston Shore, Boston, given in the Index
besides number 2 above.
4. Friesthorpe u : Lindkvist 12 and Bjorkman 13 both
discuss this word, but unsatisfactorily, and Bjorkman
assumes *Freistein, while Lindkvist says of Frestinthorp,
York, that the first member is perhaps a lost O. W. Scand.
surname, *Freistingr. Bjorkman also refers to a Frais-
thorpe in Yorkshire, though apparently not as a variant of
this name. Lindkvist criticises Wyld and Hirst, who ques-
tion F. W. Moorman's statement that -thorp is met with
chiefly in those districts where there are Scandinavian set-
tlements. Wyld and Hirst maintain that when this term
occurs in place-names in English, it is a thoroughly sound
O. E. word. Lindkvist thinks it uncertain whether the
word was used as a place-name element before the Scandi-
navian period, and says that it is of frequent occurrence
on the Continent and in Scandinavia, and when we find
it in charters of the tenth and eleventh centuries, it ia
more probable that we have the Scandinavian word. He
is not convincing in argument or proof. In fact, this word,
if connected with Frisian settlers, must also have included
the Frisian -thorp, a common Frisian place-name ele-
ment 14 ; and our study of Frisian place-names appears
10 Index to Parishes, etc.; Lewis's Top. Diet.; Philips's Atlas.
11 Index to Parishes, etc. ; Lewis's Top. Diet.
u Harald Lindkvist, Middle English Place-Names of Scandinavian
Origin, Part I, Uppsala, 1911.
a E. B. Bjcirkman, Zur englischen Namen-Kunde, p. 34.
"Oecelius, above mentioned work; W. W. Skeat, Place Names of
Suffolk, p. 91.
FRISIAN PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND 649
to indicate a Frisian district pretty well covering the
Scandinavian district in England and will require that
the investigators of the Scandinavian element revise their
conclusions with this in mind.
1. Frisby 15 : Leicestershire Survey, p. 199, in Feudal
Aids, by J. H. Rounds, gives Frisebia, date 1124-1129.
2. Frisby on the Wreak. 15
3. Frisby Lodge, also in Philips's Atlas.
4. Freezeland (N. Leic.). 16
1. Friezland. 17
1. Frisland. 17
1. Frizington 18 : Philips's Atlas gives Frizington Hall
and Frizington Station. Sedgefield presents the older
forms, Fresington, P. R. 1259, Frisington, Inq. 1298,
Frysyngton, F. F. 1409.
1. Friston 19 : R. G. Roberts gives the earlier forms,
Fristone, 1294, Cal. Rot. oh., p. 126; Frystone, 1317,
Cal. Inq. D., p. 254; Friston, 1328, Cal. Rot. ch., p. 159.
"Lewis's Top. Diet.; Index to Parishes, etc.; Philips's Atlas.
M Philips's Atlas.
" Index to Parishes, etc.
M W. J. Sedgefield, Place Names of Cumberland and Westmoreland;
Index; Philips's Atlas.
19 R. G. Roberts, Place Names of Sussex; Index to Parishes, etc.;
Lewis's Top. Diet.
650 JESSIE M. LYONS
1. Fresely 20 : W. H. Duignan gives the older forms,
Freseley, 0. E. 1256 (ch. Bolls), Freseley, 13c. (mon. n),
Freseley, 1285 C. B. M. Mr. Duignan thinks the name
from A. S. fyrs, furze or forse. He says that in certain
localities furze becomes frese, friez, and in the vicinity
of old commons we may have Friese-, .FVese-lands. It is
not clear whether his case is suppositional or whether there
are really such local forms, and he admits that neither
H. E. D. nor E. D. D. notices the shifting of the r. I can
find no Old or Middle English examples of furze spelt
frese or frieze. Also, even if such an explanation might
be plausible for certain localities, it would not answer
for others, and an entirely different explanation must be
made for the -ing and other forms. There are, also, num-
erous examples of names that are obviously connected with
the word fir or furze. Compare Firby, York, E. and
N. R. ; Firgrove, Lane. ; Firlane, York, W. R. ; Firsby,
Lincoln, etc. ; Furze Hill, Devon, Hants, Grlouc. ; Furzley,
Hants ; Fursehill, Lincoln, etc. ISTote that these names 21
are found in the districts in which Fris-, Fres- are
1. Freystrop: Bjorkman thinks this possibly from the
name *Freistein, as Stefanssen (Eng. Hist. Rev., p. 594)
takes it. If Fraisthorp is a variant, as Bjorkman appears
to indicate, the name probably goes back to some personal
'"W. H. Duignan, Place Names of Warwiokshwe, 1912.
" Philips's Atlas.
FRISIAN PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND 651
1. Friezeland, 22 Walsall Wood and Tipton: See Duig-
nan's explanation above.
1. Freezing-Hill 23 : W. St. Clair Baddeley explains, as
Duignan, that such names are connected with furze. He
does not attempt to explain -ing.
1. Friesden. 24
1. Freeze End. 25
1. Fresden. 26
2. Friseham. 27
So far as I have been able to investigate old Frisian
personal and family names, I find many names represented
in English place nomenclature that, though apparently
Old English and characterized as such in Searle's
Onomasticon and other etymological and onomological
studies, are Frisian as well; and such names have not
always come down as common English personal or sur-
names. Nor is it significant that they were common among
Old English names after the invasion and settlement of
" W. H. Duignan, Place Names of Staffordshire, 1902.
43 W. St. Clair Baddeley, Place Names of Gloucester, 1913.
34 Lewis's Top. Dioi.
M Philips's Atlas.
" Index to Parishes, etc.; Philips's Atlas.
"Mentioned by Goodhall as an example of Frisian remains in
Devon, but not in the Atlases and Dictionaries.
652 JESSIE M. LYOTTS
Britain by the Anglo-Saxons. Naturally, suet names
would lose their identity as purely Frisian among the
preponderating English population and would pass down
with English names, as the Frisian settlers of England
lost their identity. The place-names that appear to he
made from particularly Frisian names are most common
in those districts, the Northeast and the Midland, in
which the class name Frisian appears as an element of
place names. I shall note a few examples, with the admis-
sion that I am not yet able to say that these are distinctly
Frisian names, not common to the Angles and Saxons
before the invasion. They are represented in Barber's
list 28 of Old Frisian Family Names and are not so com-
mon later as other English names. I hope, also, to be able
later to present Old English forms or spellings that will
make more certain the identity of the elements with the
personal or family names with which they appear to be
Old Frisian boy, boys, boye, fam. name Boyen,
Boyinga, 2S : Compare Boyatt, Hants; Boycott, Buck.,
Salop ; Boyden, Glam. ; Boyleston, Derby ; Boyne Cottage,
Durh. ; Boyne Hill, Berks. ; Boyne' s Wood, Hants ; Boyn-
ton, York, E. R. ; Boythorpe, York, E. R. ; Boynton, Corn-
wall, Wilts, Sufi.
Old Frisian, Onno m, Onna f, Onnen fam. n. Compare
Ones Acre, York W. R. ; Onn (little and high), Staff.;
Onnesley, Staff. ; Onley, ISTorthamp. ; Onslow, JSTorthamp.,
etc. ; Onibury, Salop, seems to have the earlier form
Aneberie in Dom., also Onneley, Salop, is Aneleye in
Dem., but Anne is a variant of the name Onno. Onn
(high and little), Duignan thinks is derived from Welsh
Onn, ash tree.
**H. Barber, British Family Names. Digstra, Frieseh Woorden-
hoek, vol. IV, also mentions many of these names and others, with
place-names in England, to illustrate some form of the individual or
FRISIAN PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND 653
O. Fris. Poppe, Poppen, Poppinga 29 : Compare Pope,
O. Fris. Wet, Wets: Compare Weeting, Norfolk;
Weeton, York, W. R. and E. R. ; Weeton, Lane. ; Weets-
lade, ISTorthumb. ; Weetwood, York, W. R., etc.
O. Fris. I) ever dim. fam. name Deverke: Compare
Deverill, Brixton, Wilts.; Deverill, Longbridge, Wilts.;
Deverill, Kingston, Somerset ; Deverill, Monkton, Somer-
set; Dom. Devrel, Patent R. Deverel (Wilts). J. B.
Johnson thinks the name may be connected with 0. Keltic
Devr, for stream, or may be Norman Devereux. sa
O. Fris. Mes, Mewes: Compare Mesley, Hants; Meston,
W. Sussex. Also compare Metfield, SufT. ; Mettingham,
Suff., and Metham, York, E. R. ; Metton, Norf., with
Frisian Meta, Metta.
O. Fris. Mimme, Mimmhe, Mimmeken, Mimste: Com-
pare Minims, North M., in Herts. ; South M., in Middle-
sex ; Dom. Mimmise, 1278 Mymmys.
O. Fris. Fekko, Feko, Feho, Fekke, Feyken: Compare
Feckenham (Redditch) Wore, chart 804 Feccanhom, 957
Feccanham, Dom. 1156 Pipe Roll Fechehom. Also Dom.
of Surrey, Feceha.
O. Fris. Egge, fam. name Eggen: Compare Egton Lane,
York, N\ R. ; Egton Bridge, Egton Village, Egton Grange,
York, N. R.; Egstow, Derby; Egthorpe, Buck.; Egdale,
West M. ; Egdean, Sussex ; Egdon, Worces. ; Egghorough,
York, W. R. ; Egg Buckland, Devon ;. Eggbury, Hants ;
Eggesford, Devon; Eggford, Somerset; Eggmgton, Bed.,
etc. J. B. Johnson finds Egham (Surrey) in Grant 675
and Dom. Egeham, referring, he says, to Aega, a personal
name. Egborough, York, is Dom. Egburg and Acheburg.
" H. Barber, British Family Names.
80 J. B. Johnson, Place Names of England and Wales.
654 JESSIE M. LYONS
This list might be extended by such names as Wit, Atte
(o.), Tammo, Tanno, Sibo, Tado, Bonn®, Bano, Banke,
Dodo, Dedde, Ebbe, Ewe, Ide, Ikke, Eppo, Ippo, Giso,
Menno, Tale, Talk, Tatje, Tarn, Ubbo, Ufo, etc., all repre-
sented numerously by place-names in the counties of the
Anglian and Midland districts and in Devonshire and
south western parts. They show, at least, an Anglian and
Frisian agreement as to names greater than the Saxon and
Frisian. Whether these names were distinctly Frisian
originally or common to the Old English and Old Frisian
and how far affected by the later Scandinavian influence
I have not at present a certain opinion. It is enough to
say that there is a surprising number of places, usually
the small villages and hamlets, which may easily have
been named individually from the first settlers as home-
steads, and that these settlers, many of them, may from
the names have been Frisian. This impression agrees also
with the foregoing list of names which I believe to be con-
nected with the class name Frisa, Fresa, since the same
counties, for the most part, are represented.
It is not a new opinion that the Frisians had a greater
part in the invasion and settlement of Britain than the
known statements of history indicate. But later scholars
have not the courage of their convictions equal to the older
and perhaps less scientific historian, W. F. Skene, who
thought Procopius right in his classification of the inhab-
itants of Britain in the sixth century as Angles, Frisians
and Britons, and who said that the term Saxons was a
general one, including the Frisians, Angles, and others,
and was used for the Teutonic tribes which harassed the
coast of Britain in the last half century of the Roman
province. 81 " Of the Saxons who settled in Britain prior
u W. P. Skene, A History of Ancient Alban, vol. I, ctap. 4,
Etymology of Britain, pp. 191-192.
FRISIAN PLACE-NAMES IN ENGLAND 655
to the year 441," he says, " the colony which occupied the
northern district above the Roman wall, were probably
Frisians, as the Firth of Forth is termed by Nennius the
Frisian Sea and a part of its northern shore was known
as the Frisian Shore, but the great bulk of the immigrants
were Angli." Skene says, also, that the term Saxons
applied in a general way to those who settled in Britain
prior to 441 and that it appears to have been used in a
geographical sense. The tribes, he says, who arrived much
later and founded the petty kingdoms of the East, West,
and South Saxons probably alone belonged to the Saxons
proper. 32 This seems to be the opinion being arrived at
by scholars now, and the evidence of names in the section
of the country earliest settled appears to substantiate it.
Then why should not the old saw, " Good butter and
good cheese is good English and good Friese," have arisen
from the English-Frisian settlers in districts of Britain
rather than from scattered Frisian sailors ? At any rate,
both the Anglian dialect of Anglo-Saxon time and Northern
and Midland Middle English show an affinity with the
Frisian language that in many particulars may well be
the result of the direct contact of those who spoke the two
dialects. I shall show later, in my study of The Affinities
of the Anglian and the Frisian Dialects as Shown in
Middle English, that the relations of these people were so
definite as to leave certain dialectic marks and colloquial
peculiarities in the Northern and Midland dialects of
Middle English, sporadic and individual or local forms
that defy explanation on any other ground than direct
contact of the languages.
Jessie M. Lyons.
"Ibid., pp. 191-193.